Diabetis mellitus is characterized by a deficiency of insulin (hypoinsulinism) and by severe disturbances in carbohydrates metabolism as well as by disorders in protein and fat metabolism.
More specifically, the movement of glucose into adipose and skeletal muscle cells decreases, glycogen formation decreases, and consequently the concentration of blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia).
When the blood sugar reaches a certain high concentration, the kidneys begin to excrete the excess, and glucose appears in the urine (glycosuria). The presence of sugar raises the osmotic pressure of the urine, and more water and electrolytes are excreted than usual.
As a result of excessive urine output (diuresis, or polyuria), the affected person becomes dehydrated and experiences great thirst (polydipsia).
The background of the name
The name of this condition is derived from “diabetes“, referring to the increased output of urine, and the term “mellitus” referring to honey in a Latin, thus furthermore referring to its sugar content.
Some of symptoms of diabetic individuals
Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by the decreases in the synthesis of protein and fats. As a result of decreased protein synthesis, and increased use of protein as an energy source by glucose-starved cells, tissues tend to waste away. The affected individuals are said to lose weight rapidly and have a decreased ability to grow or repair damaged tissues.
The accumulation of fats and ketones
As a result of decreased fat synthesis and storage, fatty acids tend to accumulate in the blood abnormally. At the same time, ketone bodies increases in the blood, causing a condition called ketosis. Ketones are a by-product of fats metabolism, and they can be excreted in the urine (ketonuria) in the form of sodium salts.
However, when ketones are excreted, large quantities of water follow them osmotically. This water loss intensifies the dehydration of the tissues, and the loss of sodium salts causes the sodium ion concentration to decrease.
The accumulation of acidic high blood sugar ketone bodies in the blood and the loss of sodium ion leads to metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis Isa condition in which the pH of the body fluids decreases.
As a result of acidosis and dehydration, neurons in the brain are adversely affected, and without treatment, the person may become disoriented, comatose (diabetes coma), meaning that person go to coma and die.
Two common diabetes mellitus
There are two well known types of diabetes mellitus, this includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus also know as type-1, or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is also known as type-2 or maturity onset diabetes mellitus.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), usually appears before the age of twenty. It is an autoimmune disease, in which the body’s immune system slowly causes the beta cells of the pancreas to be damaged and finally destroyed, so that the ability to secrete insulin is lost.
Treatmentent of diabetes mellitus
The usual treatment of this form of diabetes include administration enough insulin to control carbohydrates metabolism. However, such therapy almost never achieves the blood glucose stability found in a healthy person.
Since insulin is a protein and is broken down by digestive enzymes, it must be administered parenterally- that is , by some route other than the alimentary canal, usually by injection.
The amount and type of insulin needed varies with individuals, depending on such factors as diet, physical activities, and health.
2. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
None insulin dependent diabetes mellitus individuals is found in 70 -80 percent of diabetic patients. It usually appears gradually during adulthood (after the age of forty) and produces mildly symptoms that the other form.
It is thought to be formed or caused by an inherited disorder, although most people who are affected are overweight when they first experience the symptoms.
In this condition, the beta cells continue to function, in fact the patiant may have an excessive blood insulin, the symptoms of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus seems to involve a loss of sensitivity to the hormone, apparently due to a decreased number of insulin receptors in the target cells.
Treatment of this form of diabetes usually involves a carefully controlling of the diet, participating in an exercise program, avoiding substances that stimulates insulin secretion, and maintenaning a desirable body weight.
Testing diabetes mellitus
A test commonly used to diagnose diabetes mellitus is the glucose-tolerance test. To perform the test, the patient ingests a specific amount of glucose, and the blood glucose concentration is measured at interval to determine how the glucose is utilized.
In a person with diabetes, the blood glucose concentration will rise excessively and remaining elevated for several hours. In a normal person, the glucose rises to a lesser degree and returns to its normal concentration in about one and one-half hours.
The goal of diabetes mellitus treatment
The major goal of the diabetes mellitus treatment to a patient is to keep the blood glucose concentration under control, regular monitoring of blood glucose is usually necessary.
Such testing may be done by a patient at home using a drop of capillary blood and a strip of blood glucose test paper or a blood glucose meter. The results of these tests indicate the blood glucose concentration at the time of the tests.
Another more complex method for determining a patient’s blood glucose concentration involves a laboratory blood tests for hemoglobins A. This test measures a patient’s average blood glucose concentration for the preceding sixty days.
Diabetes mellitus have no age restriction, one can be born diabetic, and that we called inherited diabetes, which is characterized by a certain Gene disorder that is running in a family.
Another diabetes maybe the acquired one, of which is the one that is caused by unhealthy reach or poor life style. This one is base on the dietary needs.
Many test are available shops, such as diabetes tests kits, diabetes supplies, diabetes mellitus strips and diabetes test meters. You can also undergo laboratory way, in which you will wait a little longer for your tests results.
Diabetes mellitus is not treatable but is controllable and easily monitored by insulin treatment or by just diet and exercise programs.