Any one can get sick due to many unforeseen reasons. You can come across your own normal flora (get details on the next topic); you can come across microorganisms like infectious bacteria from the air, soil, water, and through other human beings.
We are surrounded by trillions of microorganisms that survive in diverse environment. Some of these microorganisms are good for our health and some are very bad, culprits of our death cause. On the following topics we will discuss the basics of microorganisms diversity.
This will include entry into the microbial world, roles of microorganisms in nature, microbial adaptation to diverse environment, microorganisms that plants interact with and use of microbial diversity by humans.
The entry of microbial into the world
Definition of microorganisms diversity, and how are interconnected with one another.Before birth, all normal infants are protected from the environment by the placental of the mother and her immune system.
Immediately, the unborn child decide to escape the womb, that is where an enormously complex microbial world that had evolved past trillions years ago enters or evade an infant.
Most of these microorganisms are free living but a few have ecological niches in the external, mucosal, and other surfaces of humans and other creatures. Often these microorganisms have a mutual benefit.
Few minority became unwelcome guests on human bodies through the expression of specialized features that give them a capacity to injures thus cause an infection. Understanding how microorganisms cause an infection that lead to a diseases is the major goal of this website.
The role of microorganisms in nature
Microorganisms are defined as living things that are invisible to the human unaided eyes, can only be seen by the use of microorganisms.
There are responsible for the breakdown and natural recycling of organic material in the environment. Some can fix atmospheric nitrogen and synthesize nitrogen a containing inorganic and organic compounds that contribute to the nutrition of living things that lack this ability.
Some can use atmospheric carbon dioxide as a source of carbon for organic compounds. Others like oceanic algae produce oxygen through their use of atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
Thus , microorganisms play central roles in the nitrogen and carbon cycles and contribute to maintaining the atmospheric oxygen level.
The microbial adaptation to diverse environment
Microorganisms have amazing range of metabolic and energy yielding ability. Many have an ability to exist under conditions that are lethal to other life forms.
For example, some bacteria can oxidize inorganic compounds such as sulphur and ammonium ions to generate energy. Some can survive and multiply in hot springs at temperature above 75 degrees Celsius.
Many microorganisms can metabolize only fermentatively. Using substances other than oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, and can thus multiply under highly reduced conditions.
Some of these are callulolytic and can multiply rapidly in masses of decaying vegetation in the absence of oxygen. To many, oxygen is lethal.
The microorganisms that plants interact with
Some microbial species have adapted to a symbiotic relationship with higher forms of life. For example, bacteria that can fox atmospheric nitrogen colonize root systems of legumes.
When the plant dies or is plowed under, the fertility of the soil is enhanced by nitrogenous compounds originally derived from the metabolism of the bacteria. These few examples demonstrate the nature of microbial life and their essential place in our ecosystem.
The use of microbial diversity by humans
The metabolic diversity of microorganisms have led to their application to humans purposes. These uses include alcoholic fermentation in the production of wines and beers.Also the production of complex molecules such as vitamin12 and various antibiotics.
Through the use of recombinant DNA techniques, genes encoding the synthesis of substances such as human growth hormone and some immunologic mediators have been added to the genomes of bacteria, or yeasts, which then synthesize the desired products in the culture.
Because of this relatively simple and manipulable genetic structure, molecular biology studies on bacteria continue to help illuminate the complexities of cellular regulation and differentiation in higher life forms.
MICROORGANISMS AND DISEASES
To study microorganisms and their role in nature is very interesting and important.
This website, however has a narrower focus since it only concerned with those microorganisms that are directly involved in the maintenance of human health and causation of infection leading to a diseases.
Within this context, we considers the four broad classes of microorganisms that interact with humans: Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, and Protozoa.
We will then extend our knowledge to include some multicellular parasites, the helminths and fluke, that are macroscopic at some stages of their life cycles.
The bacteria ate generally smaller, simpler and probably more primitive than the fungi. Their nuclear material comprises of a single, double stranded, but very large DNA molecules withouts a structural nuclear membrane.
There are described as prokaryotic and haploid with nontrue sexual mode of reproduction. They possess autonomous self replicating smaller circular DNA molecules, termed plasmid.
The viruses, are totally different group of infectious agents.
There are strictly intracellular parasites of other living cells.Not only human cells and plants but also for bacteria.
The viruses are simple forms of replication, biological active particles that carry genetic information in either DNA or RNA molecules but never both.
Most matured viruses have protein coat over their nucleic acid and sometimes a lipid surface membrane. Which is derived from the cell that they infect.
They lack the protein synthesizing enzymes and structural apparatus necessary for their own replication. They bear essentially no resemblance to a true eukaryotes or prokaryotic cell.
Viruses replicate by using their genetically active nucleric acids to subvert the metabolic activities of the cell that they infect to bring about the synthesis and reassembly of their component parts.
A cell infected with the single viral particle may thus yield many thousands of viral particles, which can be assembled almost simultaneously under viral nucleic acid.
See the next publication Genomic structures: viruses causing infection and diseases