People get sick and die because of microorganisms. What are microorganisms? Microorganisms are normally known as germs in simple english.Microorganisms can not be seen by our necked eyes, we can only see them by the use of a microscopy.
When we talk of microorganisms, we simple talk about bacteria, viruses, fungi, and others http://drjiyanemedicalhelp.com/diversity-of-microorganisms-the-offense/ .
Microorganisms can be classified as bad and good. We have good microorganisms, that are used in our food, medicine and cleaning materials. We can also find very bad microorganisms that make humans, plants and animals sick.
Where can microorganisms be found?
Microorganisms can be found everywhere, all over human skin; inside ones mouth, and nose; sexual organs (private parts); inside the stomach and intestine; on our hands; food we eat; soil, air, and water.
Good microorganisms that are found as normal micro flora in our body, have an ability to harm us. Remember our body are made of sterile environment and none sterile environment.
So if the harmful microorganisms get access to the sterile part of our body such as blood circulatory system, that is where a person is defined as infected by microorganisms. At that stage it is not a diseases, it is just an infection.
What is an infection? An infection is defined by the present of a bacteria or any other microorganisms being a foreigner or an antigen in our body, where now antibodies which are normal known as body soldiers or defense system recognises antigens.
Human body defend itself from microorganisms
Human bodies are made of defense mechanism which is immune system. Immune system consists of antibodies and a lot of immune cascades which we are not going to talk about in this posts.
Our skin, mouth, eyes, noise, vagina and penis possesses first layer of defense mechanisms. Skin itself is our first protector/ barrier from foreign microorganisms. If the first immune barrier fails or over powered by microorganisms.
A broader discussion on immunology will cover this part of antibodies or immune system as a whole.
Microorganisms cause infections and diseases
Once the immunity fail to defend the body from these very bad microorganisms, the sickness begins. Once a person shows signsvand symptoms, it is when we use a term called disease.
A disease can be infectious or none infectious. The infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, very bad bacteria, very bad fungi and parasites.
Microorganisms that cause diseases are called pathogens. Pathogens have an ability to cause to cause infections that lead to diverse diseases.
For detailed information on viruses see Genomic structures: viruses causing infection and diseases
Microorganisms can enter the body through the four sites such as respiratory tract (mouth and nose) e.g. influenza virus that causes the flu. Gastrointestinal track (mouth oral cavity) e.g. vibrio cholerae which causes cholera.
Urogenital tract e.g. Escherichia coli which causes cystitis. Sex organs (vagina and penis) e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae which causes gonorrhea.
Where can microorganisms reside and multiply
Microorganisms are found every where in our planet and everywhere on/in our body except in sterile environment like blood circulatory system and central nerveous system (CNS).
In none sterile environment such as vagina, penis, anus, mouth, nose and skin, microorganisms can reside and multiply.
Viruses are microorganisms that can only survive and multiply inside leaving cells http://drjiyanemedicalhelp.com/diversity-of-microorganisms-the-offense/.
Mostly once a virus is inside a human cell, it incorporate it own DNA with that of a human cell to multiply and further infect other neighbouring cells, thus far initiate an infection that later become a disease if not diagnosed and get eliminated or treated early.
Bacterial microorganisms can survive and multiply in any environmental given. Such that, there are bacteria that survive in harsh temperatures, very hot conditions more than a thousand degrees Celsius.
Some bacteria can be found residing and multiplying in very cold environment like negative 80 degrees Celsius. This proves how stubborn are microbes, which is a reason why people, animals and plants succumb from them if not cleared.
A glance on antibiotics
Thousands of companies are manufacturing antibiotics/ antimicrobial such as antivirals, antifungal and others.
Antimicrobials are developed in order to treat, eliminate and monitor infectious microorganisms. Not forgetting that natural human immunity also play a pivotal role in eliminating and clearing microbes in our body systems.
Keeping in mind that antibiotics have side effects, those effect slightly affect human bodies negatively. Our bodies are like motor vehicles, regularly requires services.
Human body services goes along with the use of antimicrobial agents but the over used of antibiotics lead to microbial resistance to them. How microorganisms resist antibiotics, will be discussed in our next topic.
Good microorganisms go bad too
Microbiotas are not all so bad, some bacteria are good for our health but in excess are dangerous. Microorganisms called normal microflora are not that bad, they protect us from so many things.
Take an example of Mutans streptococcus which is mostly found residing in our mouth. It is responsible for keeping pH balance in our oral environment.
By keeping pH balance, our teeth are protected from an automatic demineralization (breaking down). Despite that, we still get oral conditions such as dental caries which are caused by species of Mutans streptococcus, due to our diet imbalance.
Consumption of sucrose rich nutrients lead to super activation of normal flora (Mutans streptococcus species) microorganisms to multiply excessively and uncontrollable. That way oral infection such as dental caries is manifested.
Looking at a female sex canal, it naturally possess a fungi called Candida Albicans, which is a very good microorganisms but but under unbalance pH environment, the fungal infection immerge, which is called Candidiasis.
Candidiasis cause a discharge through the vagina. Which is a very uncomfortable discharge in a woman’s private part. This fungal infection is infectious, it can be transmitted from one person to another via unprotected sexual activities. We will discuss more of sexual transmitted diseases in the next post.
Commercial uses of microorganisms
Microorganisms that are found residing in our body can be used commercially to manufacture food that we love and eat everyday, for example cheese, yogurt etc. This topic will be discussed later.
humans have both good and bad relationship with microorganisms. Good microorganisms are beneficial to human, while bad ones are harming our health. The over use of antibiotics leads to microbes being resistance.