The effects of stress

We often come across many changes in our lives, that result in stress. All this lead to factors that cause changes in our bodies, leading to a very threatening life events.

What cause stress

Being stressed is a response of your body to any environmental extremely triggers by changes or intsense social interaction. This may also result from subtle social contacts or from a lack of social contact.

Thus, a person who is socially isolated may experiences stress as much as one who is anxious, fearful, or angry.

How to recognize one with stress

A person experiencing stress may appear abnormal pale (pallor) and have cool skin and a dry mouth.The intensity of a stress response can be judged by observing changes in a person’s heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and perspiration on the palms of the hands.

It can furthermore, be measured by determining the concentration of epinephrine or cortisol in the blood or urine.

Concentration of cortisol in blood

For some reasons that are poorly understood, the increased secretion of cortisol may be accompanied by a decrease in the activities of the lymphatic organs (organs that make sure that our body cells are clean and all dirt or debris are removed completely).

Lymphatic organs that maybe involved

Such organs may include thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen. At the same time, the number of lymphocytes in the blood tends to decrease. Since these white blood cells defend the body against infection,  a person who is under stress may have a lowered resistance to infectious diseases.

In addition, the exposure to excessive amounts of cortisol may promote the development of high blood pressure,  atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal ulcers.

What other people come across

Most us we experiences some degree of stress as a result of disease, pain, anxiety, or even the medical treatments they are receiving.

Types of stress

The factors that produce stress are usually nonspecific forms of stimuli and may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both.

Psychological stress

Although it is not completely possible to prevent stress, psychological stress may often be reduced by discussing problems and sources of anxiety with your doctor.

Physical stress

Physical stress can be reduced by providing yourself with a pleasant, comfortable external surroundings and by helping further helping yourself maintain a stable internal environment by controlling pain, administration of necessary fluids and electrolytes, sick drugs or treatmentent for infection and so forth.

Recommended products

There are thousands of products that are available for everyone who seem to deal with stress or anxiety. Supplements such as zen anxiety and stress relief, which is a natural herbal formula.


Stress can come in any form, it can be physical stress through pain or and infection. It may also include psychological factors such as lot of things that cause mental disturbances.

Stress has no age, some children are born with stress but easily monitored and eliminated. As old as one can be, stress can strike. Taking care of your surroundings and internal being is the only way to do away of stress.

You are more than welcome to ask questions and yes drop a comment below. I will come back to you.

Diabetes mellitus and ketones

Diabetis mellitus is characterized by a deficiency of insulin (hypoinsulinism) and by severe disturbances in carbohydrates metabolism as well as by disorders in protein and fat metabolism.

More specifically, the movement of glucose into adipose and skeletal muscle cells decreases, glycogen formation decreases, and consequently the concentration of blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia).

When the blood sugar reaches a certain high concentration, the kidneys begin to excrete the excess, and glucose appears in the urine (glycosuria). The presence of sugar raises the osmotic pressure of the urine, and more water and electrolytes are excreted than usual.

As a result of excessive urine output (diuresis, or polyuria), the affected person becomes dehydrated and experiences great thirst (polydipsia).

The background of the name

The name of this condition is derived from “diabetes“, referring to the increased output of urine, and the term “mellitus” referring to honey in a Latin, thus furthermore referring to its sugar content.

Some of symptoms of diabetic individuals

Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by the decreases in the synthesis of protein and fats. As a result of decreased protein synthesis, and increased use of protein as an energy source by glucose-starved cells, tissues tend to waste away. The affected individuals are said to lose weight rapidly and have a decreased ability to grow or repair damaged tissues.

The accumulation of fats and ketones

As a result of decreased fat synthesis and storage, fatty acids tend to accumulate in the blood abnormally. At the same time, ketone bodies increases in the blood, causing a condition called ketosis. Ketones are a by-product of fats metabolism, and they can be excreted in the urine (ketonuria) in the form of sodium salts.

However, when ketones are excreted, large quantities of water follow them osmotically. This water loss intensifies the dehydration of the tissues, and the loss of sodium salts causes the sodium ion concentration to decrease.

The accumulation of acidic high blood sugar ketone bodies in the blood and the loss of sodium ion leads to metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis Isa condition in which the pH of the body fluids decreases.

As a result of acidosis and dehydration, neurons in the brain are adversely affected, and without treatment, the person may become disoriented, comatose (diabetes coma), meaning that person go to coma and die.

Two common diabetes mellitus

There are two well known types of diabetes mellitus, this includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus also know as type-1, or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is also known as type-2 or maturity onset diabetes mellitus.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), usually appears before the age of twenty. It is an autoimmune disease, in which the body’s immune system slowly causes the beta cells of the pancreas to be damaged and finally destroyed, so that the ability to secrete insulin is lost.

Treatmentent of diabetes mellitus

The usual treatment of this form of diabetes include administration enough insulin to control carbohydrates metabolism. However, such therapy almost never achieves the blood glucose stability found in a healthy person.

Since insulin is a protein and is broken down by digestive enzymes, it must be administered parenterally- that is , by some route other than the alimentary canal, usually by injection.

The amount and type of insulin needed varies with individuals, depending on such factors as diet, physical activities, and health.

2. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

None insulin dependent diabetes mellitus individuals is found in 70 -80 percent of diabetic patients. It usually appears gradually during adulthood (after the age of forty) and produces mildly symptoms that the other form.

It is thought to be formed or caused by an inherited disorder, although most people who are affected are overweight when they first experience the symptoms.

In this condition, the beta cells continue to function, in fact the patiant may have an excessive blood insulin, the symptoms of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus seems to involve a loss of sensitivity to the hormone, apparently due to a decreased number of insulin receptors in the target cells.

2.1. Treatment

Treatment of this form of diabetes usually involves a carefully controlling of the diet, participating in an exercise program, avoiding substances that stimulates insulin secretion, and maintenaning a desirable body weight.

Testing diabetes mellitus

A test commonly used to diagnose diabetes mellitus is the glucose-tolerance test. To perform the test, the patient ingests a specific amount of glucose, and the blood glucose concentration is measured at interval to determine how the glucose is utilized.

In a person with diabetes, the blood glucose concentration will rise excessively and remaining elevated for several hours. In a normal person, the glucose rises to a lesser degree and returns to its  normal concentration in about one and one-half hours.

The goal of diabetes mellitus treatment

The major goal of the diabetes mellitus treatment to a patient is to keep the blood glucose concentration under control, regular monitoring of blood glucose is usually necessary.

Such testing may be done by a patient at home using a drop of capillary blood and a strip of blood glucose test paper or a blood glucose meter. The results of these tests indicate the blood glucose concentration at the time of the tests.

Another more complex method for determining a patient’s blood glucose concentration involves a laboratory blood tests for hemoglobins A. This test measures a patient’s average blood glucose concentration for the preceding sixty days.

My recommendation

I recommend that you get tested for diabetes mellitus by using the home testing kids such as care touch diabetes testing kits or on call express diabetes testing kits.

If you find yourself testing positive, I recommend that you start using cooking guides for diabetic individuals. Try other good natural products to reduce blood glucose levels such as


Diabetes mellitus have no age restriction, one can be born diabetic, and that we called inherited diabetes, which is characterized by a certain Gene disorder that is running in a family.

Another diabetes maybe the acquired one, of which is the one that is caused by unhealthy reach or poor life style. This one is base on the dietary needs.

Many test are available shops, such as diabetes tests kits, diabetes supplies, diabetes mellitus strips and diabetes test meters. You can also undergo laboratory way, in which you will wait a little longer for your tests results.

Diabetes mellitus is not treatable but is controllable and easily monitored by insulin treatment or by just diet and exercise programs.

Five disorders of joint: arthritis, sprains, bursitis and dislocation

Did you know that joints are subjected to many considerable stress due to several factors? The are used frequently, and they must provide for a great variety of body movements.

Some of them must support body weight. Injuries such as dislocations and sprains occur commonly during strenuous physical activities. In addition, joints may be affected by inflammation as well as by a number of degenerative diseases such as arthritis.

The dislocation

A dislocation (luxation) involves the displacement of the articulating bones of a joint. This condition usually occurs as the result of a fall ( meaning if you happen to fall this disorder may result) or some other unusual body movement.

The joints of the shoulders, knees, elbows, fingers, and jaw are common sites for such an injuries. A dislocation is characterized by an obvious deformity of the joint, some loss of ability to move the parts involved, localized pain, and swelling. It presents a severe physical problem and requires medical attention.

The sprains

Sprains are the result of  overstretching or tearing the connective tissues, ligaments, and tendons associated with a joint, but without dislocating the articular bones. Usually sprains are caused by forceful wrenching or twisting movements involving joints of the wrists or ankles.

For example, the ankle may be sprained if it is inverted  excessively when running or jumping, causing the ligaments on its lateral surface to be stretched. In severe injuries, these tissues may be pulled loose from their attachments.

A sprained joints is likely to be painful and swollen, and movement at the joint may be restricted. The immediate treatment for a sprain is rest; more serious cases require medical attention.

However, immobilization of a joint, even for a relatively shirt period, results in resorption of bone tissue and weakening of ligaments. Consequently, following such treatment, exercises may be needed to help strengthened the joint.

The bursitis

Bursitis is an inflammation of a bursa that may be caused by excessive use of a joint or by stress on a bursa. For example, the Bursa between the heelbone (calcaneus) and the Achilles tendon may become inflamed as a result of a sudden increase in physical activity involving the use of the feet.

Similarly, a form of bursitis called “tennis elbow” involves the bursa between the olecranon process and the skin. Generally, bursitis is treated with rest, although severe cases may need medication.


Arthritis is an infection that lead to a disease condition that causes inflamed, swollen, and painful joints. Although there are several types of arthritis, the most prevalent or common forms are rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

1. Rheumatoid arthritis

It is an autoimmune disease and is the most painful and potentially crippling of the arthritic conditions. In this type of arthritis, the synovial membrane of a joint becomes inflamed and grows thicker, forming a mass called a pannus.

This change is usually followed by damage to the articular cartilages of the joint and by an invasion of the joint by fibrous tissues. These tissues interfere increasingly with joint movements, and , in time, they may become ossified so that the articulating bones become fused together (bony avnkylosis).

The rheumatoid arthritis may affect many joints or only a few. It may be accompanied by the development of other disorders, including anemia, osteoporosis, and muscular atrophy as well as abnormal changes in the skin, eyes, lungs, blood vessels, and heart.

Although e mechanism by which joints are damaged in rheumatoid arthritis is not well understood, it seems to involve the presence of certain white blood cells (chronic inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes and monocytes).

These cells release substances (cytokines) that stimulate osteoclastic activities, which , in turn, can cause destruction of bone tissue.

2. Osteoarthritis (degenerative joints disease)

This is the most common type of arthritis. It occurs ad a result of ageing, as well as certain other factors, and affects a large proportion of the population over fifty years of age.

In this condition, the articular cartilages soften and disintegrate gradually, so that the articular surfaces become roughened. Consequently, the joints involved ate painful, and their movement is somewhat restricted.

The osteoarthritis is most likely to affect joints that have received the greatest use over someone’s lifetime, such as those of the fingers, hips, knees, and the lower regions of the vertebral column.

Other factors that seem to increase the chances of developing osteoarthritis include joint injuries, excess body weight, and certain metabolic disorders.

As a rule, osteoarthritis develops relatively slowly, and its symptoms may be controlled by medication. In !ore severe cases, joints functions are disrupted, and parts of joints may need to be replaced surgically.

If you happened to feel severe pain and loss of knee joint function as a result of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. You need to receive a knee replacement.

During this surgical procedure called total knee atthroplasty, the damage surfaces of the distal femur are removed and replaced with a smooth surface metallic device.

Similarly, the proximal surface of the tibia is removed and replaced by a device consisting of low friction polyethylene attached to a metal plate. The metallic parts of these devices are connected to the bones by means of pegs, screws, or bone cement.

Obesity and athletic activities

In addition to causing fractures, the excessive mechanical stress due to obesity or certain athletic activities may damage the articular cartilage of various joints and cause it to deteriorate. Joints that are subjected to the repeated overloading, as in the elbows of a baseball pitcher or the knee of a basketball player, are likely to develop the degenerative joint diseases called osteoarthritis.

Although degeneration of the cartilage may be reversed when joints movements are resumed, it is important to avoid exercises that cause excessive compression of the tissue during the period of regeneration. Otherwise, further injuries may occur and the repair process may be hindered.


The joints disorders are not just restricted to a certain group of people age. It is a disease that is cause by an infection sometimes but yes age matter.

To correct problems caused by joint injuries or diseases, it is sometimes desirable to replace e articulating parts with artificial (prosthetic) devices.